Antiaging Treatment of the Facial Skin by Fat Graft and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

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Background: The regenerative property of fat grafting has been described.
However, it is not clear whether the clinical results are attributable to the
stem cells or are linked to other components of the adipose tissue. This work
is aimed at analysis of the histologic and ultrastructural changes of aged facial
skin after injection of fat graft in addition to its stromal vascular fraction, obtained
by centrifugation, and to compare the results with those obtained by
the injection of expanded adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
Methods: This study was performed in six consecutive patients who were candidates
for face lift and whose ages ranged between 45 and 65 years. The
patients underwent sampling of fat by liposuction from the abdominal region.
The injection of fat and its stromal vascular fraction or expanded mesenchymal
stem cells was performed in the preauricular areas. Fragments of skin were
removed before and 3 months after each treatment and analyzed by optical
and electron microscopy.
Results: After treatment with the autologous lipidic component and stromal
vascular fraction, the skin showed a decrease in elastic fiber network (elastosis)
and the appearance of new oxytalan elastic fibers in papillary dermis. The ultrastructural
examination showed a modified tridimensional architecture of the
reticular dermis and the presence of a richer microvascular bed. Similar results
following treatment with expanded mesenchymal stem cells were observed.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that treatment with either fat and stromal
vascular fraction or expanded mesenchymal stem cells modifies the pattern of
the dermis, representing a skin rejuvenation effect. (Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 135:
999, 2015.)
Article by
New York Plastic Surgeon