What are the perforator veins of the foot and ankle?
The superficial veins communicate with the deep veins via perforator veins. There are valves within these perforator veins which can also become incompetent and cause branch vein varicosities along the knee and calf and lower leg and foot.
Perforator veins of the foot are not widely recognized and can occur on the medial (inside) or lateral (outside) aspect of the foot.
There are three groups of perforator veins in the medial foot - these are the posterior group (behind the inner ankle bone), median and anterior group.
The outer foot perforators are the metatarsal group which occur on top of the foot (dorsum) and the calcaneal group near the heel.