Tissue expanders placed beneath the muscle for breast reconstruction can be painful
The traditional technique for breast reconstruction using an implantable prosthesis involves at least two stages, including placing a flat tissue expander beneath the pectoralis major muscle. This expander is slowly inflated over weeks to months, and then a permanent implant is placed at a second operation. Often, a third procedure is needed to recreate a nipple and areola, if these have also been removed.
In my practice, I usually perform a single-stage, immediate implant...