How do dentists determine enamel thickness? (photo)

20 years ago, when removing my braces, a small rotary tool was used to polish my teeth. Before the procedure, my teeth were white. After, they were yellow and translucent, with small slivers of white left in the crevices of my teeth (visible in photo). Crest White strips have been completely ineffective, only resulting in sensitivity. My fear is that my enamel was stripped. If I visit a dentist, will he/she be able to determine how much enamel, if any, remains on my teeth?

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